Friday, 2 May 2014

True Story... Boko Haram - Origin Revealed

The Origin Of Boko Haram - Revealed


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How Boko Haram group was formed

The Origin Of Boko Haram - Politics

... The term "Boko Haram" comes from the Hausa word boko meaning "Animist, western or otherwise non-Islamic education" and the Arabic word haram figuratively meaning "sin"


The Congregation of the People of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad (Arabic: جماعة اهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد‎ Jamāʻat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-daʻwa wal-Jihād) — better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram (pronounced [bōːkòː hàrâm], "Western education is sinful") - is an Islamic jihadist and takfiri militant and terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria, north Cameroon and Niger....


And this Group was was formed by Ex military Men who never Enjoyed the Country after Nigeria independence....

Upon gaining independence, Nigeria quickly committed itself to oppose and Combat the Military who fight for Nigeria independence... Then the Ex military were out of the country after their Country gained independence from Portugal, Nigeria, But Nigeria Government has not enjoyed generally good relations with its Ex military which lead To the Overthrow of Gen Buhari's Government....

but even before General Buhari was selected to lead the country by these so called Ex military... the New administration has experiencing tension from these group.... then this so called group appoint General Buhari for then to Gain back in the Country... but was later betrayed by the Gen-Buhari's with the high-ranking military officers after a successful military coup that overthrew civilian President Shehu Shagari on December 31, 1983. At the time, Buhari was head of the Third Armored Division of Jos.



Buhari was appointed Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and Tunde Idiagbon was appointed Chief of General Staff...


Buhari As a Minister of Petroleum
Having joined the army in 1962, Buhari first came to widespread public attention in 1976 when he became the Minister (or "Federal Commissioner") for Petroleum and Natural Resources under the Head of State General Olusegun Obasanjo. Before then he served as Governor of the newly created North-Eastern State during the regime of Murtala Mohammed. He later became head of the newly created Nigerian National Petroleum Corporationin 1977.

This  Ex military group believed to have a number of factions against Buhari after betraying their Plains... After Major-General Buhari was selected to lead the country by Ex military group and high-ranking military officers after a successful military coup that overthrew civilian President Shehu Shagari on December 31, 1983. At the time, Buhari was head of the Third Armored Division of Jos.
Buhari was appointed Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and Tunde Idiagbon was appointed Chief of General Staff Ex military coup .

The Buhari was still their Best Man despite several betrail  to these Ex military group....
Buhari justified to these Ex military group that lead to the military's seizure of power by castigating the civilian government as hopelessly corrupt, and his administration subsequently initiated a public campaign against indiscipline known as "War Against Indiscipline" (WAI). Aspects of this campaign included public humiliation of civil servants who arrived late for work whilst guards were armed with whips to ensure orderly queues at bus stops.

He also moved to silence critics of his administration, passing decrees curbing press freedoms and allowing for opponents to be detained up to three months without formal charges.  He also banned strikes and lockouts by workers... and founded Nigeria's first secret police force by using the Ex military group to Gain back to the Country " the National Security Organization".  His government sentenced popular musician and political critic Fela Kuti to ten years in prison on charges that Amnesty International denounced as fabricated and politically motivated;  Kuti was later pardoned and released by Buhari's successor.  In another high-profile incident that sparked a diplomatic incident with Britain, British officials found Buhari's former transportation minister drugged in a crate marked for shipment to Lagos.

According to the BBC, "Buhari's attempts to re-balance public finances by curbing imports led to many job losses and the closure of businesses." These losses were accompanied by a rise in prices and a decline in living standards. Some may hold contrary view to this assertion and call it mischievous though, because Buhari is admired by many for his uprightness and stand against corruption. His government is revered for its ability to keep the country afloat by making progress through sheer economic ingenuity even when it rejected IMF loan and refused to adopt IMF conditionalities to devalue the Naira.  His government is praised for its gain in reducing inflation by refusing to devalue the nation's currency, the Nigerian Naira, curbing imports of needless goods, curtailing oil theft and using counter trade policy to barter seized illegally bunkered crude oil for needful goods like machineries, enabling it to export above its OPEC quota.

The economic principles and political ideology of the Buhari military government is called Buharism by some political and economic writers and speakers.

1985 coup by these Ex military for detention of Buhari.

In the face of the austerity measures, worsening economic conditions, and continued widespread corruption (this is questionable as corruption was said to have been at its lowest ebb in the Buhari/Idiagbon regime), Buhari was himself overthrown in a coup led by Ex military group Men General Ibrahim Babangida and other members of the ruling Supreme Military Council (SMC) on August 27, 1985. Babangida also betrayed Ex military group brought many of Buhari's most vocal critics into his administration, including Fela Kuti's brother Olukoye Ransome-Kuti, a doctor who had led a strike against Buhari to protest declining health care services...  Babangida do all these to shade himself from these group called the EX- military group. Buhari was then detained in Benin City until 1988.

Buhari's admirers believe that he was overthrown by corrupt elements in his government who were afraid of being brought to justice as his policies were beginning to yield tangible dividends in terms of public discipline, curbing corruption, lowering inflation, enhancing workforce and improving productivity.....







These Ex military group brought Sani Abacha into Power to sentenced popular high-ranking military officers in jailed... which .led to several executions of Ogoni activists opposed to the exploitation of Nigerian resources by the multinational petroleum company, Royal Dutch Shell Group); Moshood Abiola and Olusegun Obasanjo were jailed for treason, and Wole Soyinka charged in absentia with treason. His regime suffered opposition externally by pro-democracy activists...

Obasanjo was charge in 1995 for plotting coup against military leader General Sani Abacha and sentenced to life in prison. This was later commuted to 15 years after pressure from friends abroad, including South Africa's Nelson Mandela, former US President Jimmy Carter and former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. 



Obasanjo visiting Arlington County, Virginia, in May 2001.


Obasanjo in 1978
1998: Released from prison after Abacha's death and returns to politics. Opinions differ on why Obasanjo decided to run for president so soon after coming out of jail. His critics saw him as a pawn of the military elite - previous military rulers visited Obasanjo as he was considering running, and supported his campaign. His supporters consider him to be independent-minded. Obasanjo himself claimed to have "found God" while in prison, which gave him the strength to run for the country again. He was reported to have said that his mission was to restore Nigeria and defeat separatism.
1999: Obasanjo won presidential elections on 27 February with 62 percent of the valid votes cast. His Party, the People's Democratic Party (PDP), won about the same majority in the two houses of the National Assembly, state houses and the state legislature. Obasanjo's rival, Olu Falae of the combined Alliance for Democracy / All People's Party (AD/APP), challenged the result in court claiming that the PDP had bought votes, but lost. 



Obasanjo in 1978 With US President Jimmy Carter in Lagos, 1978



Sani Abacha Corruption allegations

During Abacha's regime, a total of £5 billion was reportedly siphoned out of the country's coffers by the head of state and members of his family. At that time Abacha was listed as the world's fourth most corrupt leader in recent history. Abacha's national security adviser, Alhaji Ismaila Gwarzo, played a central role in the looting and transfer of money to overseas accounts.  His son Mohammed Abacha was also involved. A preliminary report published by the Abdulsalam Abubakar transitional government in November 1998 described the process. Sani Abacha told Ismaila Gwarzo to provide fake funding requests, which Abacha approved. The funds were usually sent in cash or travellers' cheques by the Central Bank of Nigeria to Gwarzo, who took them to Abacha's house. Mohammed Abacha then arranged to launder the money to offshore accounts. An estimated $1.4 billion in cash was delivered in this way. In March, 2014, the United States Department of Justice revealed that it had frozen more than $458 million believed to have been illegally obtained by Abacha and other corrupt officials.

Sani Abacha Death

Abacha died in June 1998 while at the presidential villa in Abuja. He was buried on the same day, according to Muslim tradition, without an autopsy. This fueled speculation that he may have been executed extrajudicially by way of being poisoned by political rivals via prostitutes. On the contrary, the government cited his cause of death as a sudden heart attack. It is reported that he was in the company of two Indian prostitutes imported from Dubai. It is thought that these prostitutes laced his drink with a poisonous substance, making Abacha feel unwell around 4:30am. He retired to his bed and was dead by 6:15am.

After Abacha's death, Maj. Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar, Nigeria's defense chief of staff, was sworn in as the country's head of state. Abubakar had never before held public office and was quick to announce a transition to democracy, which led to the election of President Olusegun Obasanjo.

Abacha was married to Maryam Abacha and had seven sons and three daughters  He has fifteen grandchildren — eight girls and seven boys.
Recovery of stolen funds

After Sani Abacha's death, the Obasanjo government implicated Abacha and his family in a wholesale looting of Nigeria's coffers. The late dictator's son, Mohammed Abacha, continues to maintain that all the assets in question were legitimately acquired. In 2002, Abacha's family purpotedly agreed to return $1.2 billion that was taken from the central bank.
Legacy

General Abacha is credited with restoring Nigeria's standing as an African Power when he twice ordered the Nigerian Military to Intervene and restore the civilian and Democratic governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia after a series of Military Coups in both countries.
False representation of name

The names of Sani Abacha, his wife Maryam, and son Mohammed are often used in advance fee fraud (419) scams; he is "identified" in scam letters as the source for "money" that does not exist. One website that is dedicated to exposing advance fee scammers and similar schemes, ebolamonkeyman.com, exposed one use of the Abacha family name—resulting in a wider exposure and awareness of these types of scams in general.

Sani Abacha Military career

Abacha was commissioned in 1963, after he had attended the Mons Defence Officers cadet Training College in Aldershot, England. Before then, he had attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna. Abacha's Military career is distinguished with a string of successful coups. He is by some records the most successful coup plotter in the history of Nigeria's military. He took part in the countercoup of July 1966, from the conceptual stage, and may have been a participant in the Lagos or Abeokuta phases of the January 1966 coup. He was also a prominent figure in every single successful coup in Nigerian history, two of which brought and removed General Muhammadu Buhari from power in 1983. When General Ibrahim Babangida was named President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1985, Abacha was named Chief of Army Staff. He was later appointed Minister of Defence in 1990.

General Sani Abacha (20 September 1943 – 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian soldier and politician who served as the  President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. Abacha's regime is one of the most controversial in Nigeria's history. His regime became the first to record unprecedented economic achievements: he oversaw an increase in the country's foreign exchange reserves from $494 million dollars in 1993 to $9.6 billion by the middle of 1997, reduced the external debt of Nigeria from $36 billion in 1993 to $27 billion by 1997, brought all the controversial privatization programs of the Babangida administration to halt, reduced an inflation rate of 54% inherited from Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida to 8.5% between 1993 and 1998, all while the nation's primary commodity, oil was at an average of $15 per barrel. His administration is also credited with creating the most comprehensive and realistic blueprint for Nigeria's development through the Vision 2010 committee chaired by his predecessor Ernest Shonekan.



These Ex military group later lose support from the state House and later launch an Islamic Law ("Boko Haram")
These Ex military group soldiers and fighters demanding Islamic law across the country have engaged in more gun battles despite claims by the president that the country is "under control".


The term "Boko Haram" comes from the Hausa word boko meaning "Animist, western or otherwise non-Islamic education" and the Arabic word haram figuratively meaning "sin"

The Congregation of the People of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad (Arabic: جماعة اهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد‎ Jamāʻat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-daʻwa wal-Jihād) — better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram (pronounced [bōːkòː hàrâm], "Western education is sinful")[ —is an Islamic jihadist and takfiri militant and terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria, north Cameroon and Niger.

Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002,  the organisation seeks to establish a "pure" Islamic state ruled by sharia law, putting a stop to what it deems "Westernization".  The group is known for attacking Christians and government targets, bombing churches, attacking schools and police stations, kidnapping western tourists, but has also assassinated members of the Islamic establishment. Violence linked to the Boko Haram insurgency has resulted in an estimated 10,000 deaths between 2002 and 2013.

The group exerts influence in the northeastern Nigerian states of Borno, Adamawa, Kaduna, Bauchi, Yobe and Kano. In this region, a state of emergency has been declared. The group does not have a clear structure or evident chain of command and has been called "diffuse" with a "cell-like structure" facilitating factions and splits. It is reportedly divided into three factions with a splinter group known as Ansaru. The group's main leader is Abubakar Shekau. Its weapons expert, second-in-command and arms manufacturer was Momodu Bama.

Whether it has links to jihadist groups outside Nigeria is disputed. According to one US military commander, Boko Haram is likely linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), but others have found no evidence of material international support, and attacks by the group on international targets have so far been limited. On November 13, 2013 the United States government designated the group as a terrorist organisation.



Ideology
Boko Haram opposes not only Western education, but Western culture and modern science as well. In a 2009 BBC interview, Yusuf stated that the belief that the world is a sphere is contrary to Islam and should be rejected, along with Darwinism and the theory that rain comes from water evaporated by the sun.

History

The group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri by Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf. In 2004 it moved to Kanamma, Yobe State, where it set up a base called "Afghanistan", used to attack nearby police outposts, killing police officers. Yusuf is hostile to democracy and the secular education system, vowing that "this war that is yet to start would continue for long" if the political and educational system was not changed.
In Bauchi the group was reported as refusing to mix with local people. The group includes members who come from neighbouring Chad and speak only in Arabic.

Clash with the state
In July 2009 the Nigerian police started investigating the group, following reports that the group was arming itself. Several leaders were arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people.

Attacks
Prior to the clashes, many Muslim leaders and at least one military official had warned the authorities about Boko Haram. Those warnings were reportedly ignored.


Bauchi
Bauchi (Nigeria)
In the state of Yobe, fighters reportedly "used fuel-laden motorcycles" and "bows with poison arrows" to attack a police station. On 30 July, allegations were made that Yusuf himself was killed by Nigerian security forces after being taken into custody.

In January 2010, the group struck again in the Nigerian state of Borno, killing four people in Dala Alemderi ward in Maiduguri metropolis.

On September 7, 2010, Boko Haram freed over 700 inmates from a prison in Bauchi State.

In December 2010, Boko Haram were blamed for a market bombing, following which 92 of its members were arrested by police.

On Friday January 28, 2011, a gubernatorial candidate was assassinated, along with his brother and four police officers.

On March 29, police “thwarted a plot to bomb an [ANPP] election rally” in Maiduguri, Borno State. The threat was blamed on Boko Haram.

On April 1 (the day before the original date of Nigeria’s legislative elections), suspected Boko Haram members attacked a police station in Bauchi (map).

On April 9, a polling center in Maiduguri was bombed.

On April 15, the Maiduguri office of the Independent National Electoral Commission was bombed, and several people were shot in a separate incident on the same day. Authorities suspected Boko Haram.

On April 20, Boko Haram killed a Muslim cleric and ambushed several police officers in Maiduguri. On April 22, Boko Haram freed 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola, Adamawa State (map)

On Tuesday February 8, 2011, Boko Haram gave conditions for peace. The radicals demanded that the Borno State Governor, Senator Ali Modu Sheriff, should step down from office with immediate effect and also allow members to reclaim their mosque in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State.

On 9th May 2011 Boko Haram rejected an offer for amnesty made by the governor-elect of Borno state, Kashim Shettima

Boko Haram was blamed for a series of bombings in northern Nigeria on May 29, 2011 that left 15 dead.

On June 17, 2011 the group claimed responsibility for a bombing attack on the police force headquarters in Abuja that occurred the previous day.
Officials believed that the attack was the first suicide bombing in Nigeria's history.The Inspector General of police Hafiz Ringim, was the principal target of the June 17 2011 bombing.





Group believed to have a number of factions with differing aims, including to launch an Islamic state in the north.

Boko Haram is an armed group blamed for killing hundreds of people in northern and central Nigeria. Many of the attacks have targeted places of worship, often churches, but Muslims have also been killed.

The group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno state, allegedly by Mohammed Yusuf, a religious teacher.

In 2004, it moved to Kanamma in Yobe state, close to the border with Niger, where it set up a base dubbed "Afghanistan", from which it attacked nearby police outposts.

Boko Haram means "Western education is sin" in the Hausa language spoken in Nigeria's north. It is believed to have a number of factions with differing aims, including some with political links.

The group initially claimed to be fighting for the creation of an Islamic state in the north, but a range of demands by different people have since been issued.

Conspiracy theories

Criminal gangs are also believed to have carried out violence under the guise of Boko Haram. Conspiracy theories abound as well, including whether enemies of President Goodluck Jonathan, a southern Christian who faces strong opposition in the north, have backed the violence.


The group's first real leader was the late Mohammed Yusuf, who convinced young people to join him despite having only elementary knowledge of the Quran, according to one professor who has studied the group.

His former deputy Abubakar Shekau is widely believed to currently lead Boko Haram's main cell, which says it wants to be known by a different name, roughly translated as "People Committed to the Prophet's Teachings for Propagation and Jihad".

Boko Haram launched an uprising in 2009, leading to nearly a week of fighting that ended with a military assault which left about 800 dead and the group's mosque and headquarters in northeastern Maiduguri in ruins.

Yusuf was captured and later killed when police said he was trying to escape from custody - but his body was found in the street, still handcuffed, raising concerns that he had been the victim of an extrajudicial killing.

Motivation questioned

Boko Haram went dormant for more than a year before re-emerging in 2010 with a series of assassinations. Bomb blasts, including suicide attacks, have since become frequent and increasingly deadly.

Salisu Mohammed, a conflict management specialist, told Al Jazeera that Nigerian authorities should have acted sooner to stop the proliferation of Boko Haram.

"Many people have known of the existence of this group, silently and within the community, especially in the last year," he said. "They are becoming more extreme because in the past there wasn't a major push in place to check their proliferation."

In May of 2013, the Nigerian army did launch a major offensive against the group, deploying thousands of troops in the north and launching aerial bombardments of suspected Boko Haram hideouts.

Jonathan issued a decree allowing soldiers to arrest people at will and take over buildings suspected of housing fighters.

Analysts have said that at the heart of the surge in violence is dire poverty and political manoeuvring - not religion.

They believe attacks were committed mainly by frustrated, unemployed youths and orchestrated by religious leaders and politicians who manipulate them to retain power.

Despite the deployment of more soldiers and police to northern Nigeria, the nation's weak central government has been unable to stop the killings.

From 2010 on, attacks that have killed more than 1,500 people according to a count by the Associated Press.